Hedgehog Care Guide: Complete Handbook

Hedgehogs can make unique and interesting pets, but they require specific care to thrive in a domestic environment. Here’s a comprehensive guide on how to care for a hedgehog at home:

Hedgehog Species

The most common pet hedgehog species is the African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). They are small, nocturnal mammals native to parts of Africa.


  1. Enclosure: Use a large cage or vivarium with a solid bottom to prevent escape and provide a secure environment. Ensure good ventilation.
  2. Bedding: Choose safe bedding materials like recycled paper or aspen shavings, avoiding cedar or pine which can be harmful.
  3. Hideouts: Provide hiding spots like tunnels, igloos, or PVC pipes for comfort and security.
  4. Temperature: Maintain a temperature range of 72-80°F (22-27°C) with a heating pad or ceramic heat emitter. Avoid heat lamps that emit bright light at night.


  1. Commercial Food: Offer a high-quality hedgehog food blend as their primary diet, supplemented with live insects like mealworms, crickets, and occasional treats like fruits and vegetables.
  2. Water: Provide fresh water in a shallow dish or a sipper bottle daily.

Health Care

  1. Veterinary Care: Schedule regular check-ups with an exotic or small mammal veterinarian experienced in hedgehog care.
  2. Parasite Control: Treat for parasites like mites and ticks as recommended by a vet.
  3. Nail Trimming: Trim nails regularly to prevent overgrowth and discomfort.
  4. Quilling: Hedgehogs undergo quilling (shedding baby spines) at around 6-8 weeks old; provide extra care during this period.
  5. Hygiene: Clean the enclosure regularly, spot-clean daily, and provide a dust-free environment.

Handling and Socialization

  1. Bonding: Spend time with your hedgehog daily to build trust and establish a bond.
  2. Handling: Handle them gently and confidently, supporting their body to avoid injury.
  3. Socialization: Introduce new experiences gradually to reduce stress and encourage curiosity.

Enrichment and Exercise

  1. Wheel: Provide a solid-surface exercise wheel (not wire) of appropriate size for daily exercise.
  2. Toys: Offer safe toys like tunnels, balls, and chew toys for mental stimulation.
  3. Foraging: Hide treats or food around the enclosure to encourage natural foraging behavior.

Behavior and Communication

  1. Nocturnal Activity: Expect your hedgehog to be most active at night; provide a quiet environment during the day.
  2. Hissing and Balling: Hedgehogs may hiss or curl into a ball when stressed or frightened; give them space and time to calm down.
  3. Vocalizations: They may make soft grunting or clicking sounds as part of their communication.

Legal Considerations

  1. Check Local Laws: Ensure hedgehog ownership is legal in your area before acquiring one as a pet.
  2. Permits: Some regions require permits or specific regulations for keeping exotic pets like hedgehogs.

Common Issues and Troubleshooting

  1. Obesity: Monitor food intake to prevent obesity; adjust diet and increase exercise if needed.
  2. Respiratory Infections: Watch for signs like sneezing or nasal discharge; seek veterinary care promptly.
  3. Skin Issues: Check for dry skin, quill loss, or irritations; adjust bedding and consult a vet if problems persist.


Proper care and attention are essential for keeping a hedgehog healthy and happy as a pet. By providing a suitable environment, balanced diet, regular veterinary care, and positive interaction, you can enjoy a rewarding relationship with your hedgehog companion.

More Informations

Certainly, let’s delve deeper into each aspect of hedgehog care and expand on some additional topics:


  1. Size of Enclosure: Aim for a minimum cage size of around 4 square feet (0.37 square meters) for one hedgehog, with additional space for exercise and enrichment.
  2. Multi-Level Housing: Consider providing platforms or ramps to create a multi-level living space, offering more room for exploration.
  3. Substrate Choices: While paper-based bedding is safe and easy to clean, some owners prefer fleece liners that can be washed and reused, reducing waste.
  4. Environmental Enrichment: Add items like non-toxic plants (e.g., fake silk plants), hiding spots with varying textures, and different levels to encourage natural behaviors and mental stimulation.
  5. Lighting: Use a low-wattage red or blue light for viewing at night, as hedgehogs are sensitive to bright light.


  1. Nutritional Balance: Ensure the hedgehog food blend contains a balance of protein, fat, fiber, vitamins, and minerals suitable for their dietary needs.
  2. Insect Variety: Offer a variety of live insects to provide nutritional diversity and mimic their natural diet.
  3. Fruits and Vegetables: Limit sugary fruits and focus on offering small amounts of safe vegetables like carrots, peas, and leafy greens as occasional treats.
  4. Hydration: Monitor water intake to ensure hydration; consider using a water bottle with a sipper tube to prevent spills and keep water clean.
  5. Food Presentation: Use interactive feeders or scatter food around the enclosure to encourage foraging behavior, promoting mental stimulation and physical activity.

Health Care

  1. Symptom Awareness: Learn common signs of health issues such as lethargy, loss of appetite, changes in stool or urine, and abnormal breathing.
  2. Quarantine: If introducing a new hedgehog or pet into the household, quarantine them initially to prevent the spread of potential diseases.
  3. Socialization Benefits: Regular handling and socialization not only strengthen the bond but also allow you to detect any changes in behavior or health early.
  4. Environmental Stressors: Minimize stress factors like loud noises, sudden movements, or exposure to other pets that may cause anxiety in hedgehogs.
  5. Emergency Preparedness: Have a designated exotic pet emergency kit with essential supplies like heat packs, syringes for feeding, and contact information for a 24/7 exotic animal vet.

Enrichment and Exercise

  1. DIY Toys: Create homemade toys like PVC tube mazes, paper roll tunnels, or fleece snuffle mats for added enrichment without breaking the budget.
  2. Rotation of Toys: Rotate toys regularly to prevent boredom and keep the hedgehog engaged with new stimuli.
  3. Outdoor Time: If weather permits, supervised outdoor time in a secure area can provide additional sensory stimulation and natural sunlight exposure.
  4. Social Play: Some hedgehogs enjoy interactive play sessions with their owners, such as gentle rolling a small ball or playing with feather toys.

Behavior and Communication

  1. Territorial Behavior: Hedgehogs can be territorial, especially males; monitor interactions if housing multiple hedgehogs and be prepared for occasional territorial disputes.
  2. Scent Marking: They may mark their territory by anointing themselves with new scents; this behavior is normal and helps them feel secure in their environment.
  3. Bonding Pouch: Using a bonding pouch or small carrier can help acclimate hedgehogs to human scents and facilitate bonding during handling sessions.

Legal Considerations

  1. Zoning Laws: In addition to checking local laws, research zoning regulations if you plan to keep multiple exotic pets or breed hedgehogs.
  2. Import and Export Regulations: If purchasing a hedgehog from a breeder in another region or country, ensure compliance with import/export laws and obtain necessary permits or health certificates.

Training and Behavioral Challenges

  1. Litter Training: While hedgehogs are generally clean animals, litter training can be encouraged by placing a shallow litter tray with appropriate substrate (e.g., paper-based litter) in a consistent location.
  2. Handling Challenges: Some hedgehogs may be more resistant to handling initially; patience, positive reinforcement, and gradual introduction to handling can help overcome these challenges.
  3. Sensory Enrichment: Explore sensory enrichment activities like introducing new scents (e.g., herbs, spices) or playing soft music to stimulate their senses and provide a calming environment.

Breed-Specific Considerations

  1. Albino Hedgehogs: Albino hedgehogs may have increased sensitivity to light and require dimmer lighting and shaded areas in their enclosure.
  2. Color Variations: Different hedgehog color variations (e.g., cinnamon, pinto) may have unique temperament traits or care needs; research specific traits associated with your hedgehog’s coloration.

Community and Support

  1. Online Forums and Groups: Join online communities or forums dedicated to hedgehog care to exchange tips, seek advice, and connect with experienced hedgehog owners.
  2. Local Exotic Pet Clubs: Attend local exotic pet clubs or events to meet other hedgehog enthusiasts, share experiences, and access resources such as recommended veterinarians and breeders.

By incorporating these detailed aspects into your hedgehog care routine, you can provide a holistic and enriching environment for your pet hedgehog, promoting their health, well-being, and happiness.

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